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What is nanoarchitectonics?
Nanotechnology plays an extremely important role in the development of new materials. Yet, nanotechnology tends to be misunderstood as a simple extension of the conventional microtechnology that has demonstrated great effectiveness in micro-fabrication off semiconductor devices – in other words, as a refinement of microtechnology. In fact, however, nanotechnology and microtechnology are qualitativelyy different. At MANA, we call the new paradigm off nanotechnology, which correctly recognizes this qualitative difference, “nanoarchitectonics.”
The distinctive features of nanoarchitectonics can be summarized in the following four key points:
- 1 “Unreliability-tolerant reliability”
- In the world of microtechnology, structures can be constructed according to a design drawing or “blueprint.” This is generally not possible in the world of nanotechnology because the world of nanotechnology is far smaller than that of microtechnology. In nanotechnology, thermal and statistical fluctuations become apparent, and at the same time, nanotechnology confronts the limits of the principles of control methods. Therefore, the viewpoint of realizing reliable functions with structures that contain ambiguity is important.
- 2 “From nano-functionality to nanosystem-functionality”
- Nanoscale structures (nanoparts) frequently display interesting new properties, but there are limits to their functionalities, either as individual units or as simple aggregates. Thus, creating completely new functionalities by effectively utilizing interactions among nanoparts of the same type or different types is important.
- 3 “More is different”
- In complex systems that consist of an enormous number of nanoparts, unexpected new functions often emerge in the system as a whole. Therefore, utilizing, and not overlooking, the phenomenon that “quantity changes quality” is another key point.
- 4 “Truth can be described with plain words”
- Finally, it is also necessary to pioneer a new theoretical field, which is capable of handling the three above-mentioned points. In this, it is necessary to construct a theoretical system that not only treats atoms, molecules, electrons, photons, spin, etc. on a first-principles basis, but also consciously introduces “appropriate bold approximation.”