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Anirban Bandyopadhyay's Lab


Molecular Electronics Artificial Intelligence

 A tree never goes to school but performs particularly advanced supercomputing in its leaves, so does our brain without a single logic gate. Ants in the soil, birds in the sky do not use brain's central controlled processing but still develop intelligence. Therefore lots of idiots can develop massive intelligence working together, or massive parallel operations can generate intelligence in a single control unit.


 Recently it is understood that pattern based computing is the key to the power of single control unit based bio-processors. If realised artificially, mankinds history of science will be re-visited as existing physical  laws, theorems, equations will be represented in terms of patterns as nature does always at every part of this universe.


 Our objective is to demonstrate that these concepts are not merely theoretical formulation, rather practically realisable at nano-scale using simple molecules in simple experiments.


 Please visit our Research section to know about our research, contact me or my collaborators if you wish to engage into good scientific arguments, or be a part of our effort and help us to touch nature someday.

 A molecule is a collection of atoms, vibrates continuously if temperature is not absolutely zero. As electronics is controlling flow of electrons, orientation of atoms inside molecule can generate electronic property (ME).


 But dare not to connect it between two leads. With connection of every single additional atoms as its leads, property of the system changes. Molecular property that we want to use no longer remains. No repeated accuracy of atomic contact formation destroys the dream of ME.


 So, lets use forces of nature, let molecules play and create electronic circuit by self assembly. Think about a computer that grows in water as soon as you add a few molecules into it. Mankind has always attempted to build smaller tools for constructing smaller machines. However, nature changes component's environment such that components themselve build the circuit it requires.


 But this is not fiction. The road starts studying single molecules very accurately, knowing grammer of its electronic or optical language using scanning tunneling microscope and advanced modelling. If having problem going back to DNA structure and learn.

 Intelligence means analysing multiple parameters at a time and take decisions accordingly. For an example, at this moment while reading this line you are thinking about your wife, or kids, flowers in the garden, nice colleagues, smile of your boss... so many things. All information evolve in your brain at a time, by floating your brain among them you take important decisions. Massive parallel processing in this case is based on "one to many communication" at a time among hardware components in the brain distinctly different from existing supercomputing.


 We have created this phrase, because everywhere in nature wherever you see intelligence, inside the hardware you will find this principle. Nature can make intelligent circuits but we dont know how to. Till now Artificial Intelligence exists mostly in the mathematical equations.


 When neural network is defined with an equation to follow, we call it cellular neural net (ANN), when few theoretical neuron cells communicate with particular neighbors following particular rules it is called cellular automata (CA) and if this happens without external trigger it is called an Artificial Life (A-life). Recently it has been demonstrated that A-life may exhibit universal computing.

News coverage of our research


   Click on the line to read the news articles or TV coverage, some critical views of general readers are also included.


Invention of brain like evolutionary circuit using organic molecule2010 Apr Nature Physics


  Will brain-like evolutionary circuit lead to intelligent computers? by Michael Berger, Nanowerk Spotlight

  Molecular computer mimics human brain, Processor can solve complex problems, even heal itself by Charles Q Choi, MSNBC,

  LiveScience, FOX news, Tech News Daily etc.

  Molecular computing: Making minds up, by Michael Segal, Nature Asia,

  “Like Neurons in the Brain”: A Molecular Computer That Evolves by Surfdaddy Orca in hplusmagazine

  A molecular computer that mimics the brain by Saswato Das, IEEE spectrum

  Scientists create organic molecular computer by Dario Borghino, Gizmag

  First intelligent microprocessor created - is it a cyborg? Birmingham Science News Examiner by Paul Hamaker

  Intelligent molecular computer built using lessons from human brain, and Lessons from the Brain: Toward an Intelligent Molecular

  Computer by Marcia Goodrich, Institute of Nanotechnology also re-written by stuff reporter in Science Daily.

  Molecular computer mimics human brain by Emma Wollacott, TG Daily

  Scientists create brain-like computing on an organic molecular layer, ANI, London also reported in IndiaDaily entitled as Intelligent,

  creative computers come closer to reality

  Brain like computing on an organic molecular layer, Space Daily, Stuff reporter, Houghton, USA

  Molecule-Sized Computer Mimics Human Brain At Work by Rebecca Boyle, Popsi

  Will AI reach human intelligence? Science Blog CivFanatics

  Brainlike computing on an organic molecular layer, Current blog

  Lessons from the Brain: Towards an intelligent computer, Phys. Org. (download PDF) and also highlighted in World News Frasher

  Shand has written similarly in Nano.


  Some blogs, like Next Big Future, and Davidmdowning, april 26 of Ahier.net, philosophy of this work in correlation to consciousness is

  discussed in Alt.philosophy, highlighted by National Science Foundation USA (link to MTU) Francis emul science news


  The above list does not include journals in print, and news reports from Chili, Isreal, Japan, India as of now, since they are not in

  English and some of them have declined permission to use those articles in our website. 


  Read more>


Challenging the absoluteness of a single molecule2009, Dec PCCP


   Many faces of a molecule, Chemistry World, A Royal society of Chemisty publication.

   Single molecules electronic behavior changes according to their shape by


   Read More>


A general explanation of negative differential resistance2008, June PRL


   Physicists model single molecular switch, computing elusive "holy grail", Science Daily, USA self-reporting, the news is also covered

   in Mechanism Behind Computing's Elusive Holy Grail, by Azonano, USA,

   IEEE has noted the contribution, as mentioned here.

   For comments from readers please read Phys Org coverage of the article from USA.

   Indian Scientist explains "holy grail", Deccan Herald, India reported by Kalyan Ray


   Several news reports are updated by Prof. Ranjit Pati in his website, please follow the links for details


   Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008)


Invention of worlds first nano brain2008, March PNAS


   Molecular machine takes control, MSNBC, USA. Reported by Alan Boyle

   Tiny brain-like computer created, LiveScience, USA. Reported by Charles Q Choi also reported in Foxnews and responsible nanotech

   Chemical brain control nanobots, BBC, London. Reported by Jonathan Flides also covered by Press TV 

   Chemical wheels could boost computers, RSC, UK. Reported by Michael Gross

   Brain for nanobots, Nanoreck, USA. Reported by Michael Berger

   Molecules ring for information, NPG, AM, UK. Reported by Tim Reid of Nature

   Japan takes lead in medical nano robots, Foresight Inst. USA, highlighted by Dr. Christine Peterson

   Molecular computer could be nanobot brain, The Telegraph, London, reported by Roger Highfield

   El chip que imita al cerebro humano, elmundo, Spain, reported by Angel Diaz

   Scientists design molecule size machine, mimics brain, Xinhua, China, reported by personal press

   Computer più potenti con gli steroidi, Lastampa, Itally, reported by personal press

   Verdens første nanocomputer: 2 milliarddele af en meter, Ingenioren, Denmark, reported by Magnus Bredsdorff

   Small Brain Goes Digital, softpedia, reported by Gabriel Gache

   And So The Nano-Brain Was Born, reported by Darryl Mason

    Tiny Brain-Like Transistor Controls Nanobots, Phys Org, reported by Lisa Zyga


   This is not possible to put here more than 250 websites, blogs news channels from more than 20 countries those who contacted us for the news. Example of one blog is this which continue to discuss. May be you are interested in Richard Dawkins. News channels from Neitherland, Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Rumenia, Brazil, Thailand, Korea, Argentina, mexico and many others still remain. Please put "nano brain anirban" in google to find many of them.


  Hardcopies are not available as of now, IEEE from USA, and some news agencies from Finland and Germany published such articles.


  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (2008)    Appl. Phys. Lett. (2006)


  Read More>


Organic memory switch mimicking neuron2004, september


   The statesmen covered a feature article on general contrubtion in supramolecular electronics (hardcopy)


   Adv. Mater.  (2003)   Appl. Phys. Lett.  (2003)   J. Phys. Chem. B (2003)  Appl. Phys. Lett. (2004)


Discovering memory in plastics2002, October


   Plastic computer memory advances, Technology Research News, USA reported by Kimberly Patch

   The news was also covered in Itally, which linked patches report.


   J. Appl. Physics (2002)




   Contact: Anirban Bandyopadhyay, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan-305-0037 www.anirbanlab.co.nr