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We have designed a nano brain based on the principles of quantum brain model as tabled below and therefore based on that design a future conscious, intelligent, creative computers could be analysed. Here is the details how it is formulated. See publication section to go to the link and read the paper Bandyopadhyay et al, Int. J. Nanotech. & Mol. Comp.





The bio-processor or nano brain we are developing is driven by the theories of quantum brain research carried out since long time by the appropriate fusion of physiological studies of our real brain and quantum mechanical theories.


These theories are different from Hugo de Garis type brain projects.


See Movie to know about Garis type brain building projects.

We believe that, taking a neuron out of our brain and doing communication studies lead no-where because neuron exhibits its optimal performance when it is inside the global neuron matrix. Though exhaustive research is going on around the world in this direction, we have not used any data or conclusion developed by them.


Rather we use neuro-physiological studies carried out by magnetic resonance imaging and electronic signal response, activity mapping of a real brain when it is alive, even we use other active live samples (living species).


See movie, how our brain evolves a pattern listening to music

We have also used communication mapping carried out in the large cluster of neurons, used fresh, without keeping it alive for long long time. However, we have always been very very reluctant to use these data for designing our nano brain. We believe that simply following particular principles it is possible to construct a brain operating 100 billion bits per second. We forcefully imagine our brain as an extremely complex system, quantum mechanical models of our brain have made significant progress in defining simple design rules that can turn a machine intelligent, creative, and eventually conscious. Most of these models satisfy experimental results therefore there is no need to ignore them classifying as metaphysics obsession. We have used these principles strongly in our recent paper on nano brain.


Here are some of the fundamental works done on modelling the functionality of our brain, its self-organisation, conciousness, intelligence, creativity etc.


First, see a popular presentation of this issue.

See movie, how our conciousness is related to quantum mechanics

Now, to get into this topic from some fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics see these talks from Amit Goswami (it is in three parts)


See movie quanum physics and consciousness

Now, see this discussion from Hameroff below, note what he says about Penrose, because I believe that the fundamental argument of Penrose against possibility of AI to touch brain is not general and it does not conflict with the free will of ours as Penrose argues. Patterns have the ability to produce new form of same solution for billions of years.


See movie How Hameroff argues for quantum model of brain to take it beyond reach.

Now you need to know couple of terms "objective reductionism", "superposition of quantum states" and "critical threshold". Now watch the discussion below, wherein Hameroff argues that consciousness is not sole property of our brain, any system with such criteria can reach to this quality


See movie can we have a general model of conscious machine?

You may go to Hameroffs webpage to learn more about consciousness, or listen to his talk on the marriage of brain and computer.


As a physics student I always found myself in trouble when I found these peoples, pushing hard to explain everything as quantum mechanics. For an example in this talk around 29th minute you will find that Hameroff is arguing that electrostatic and van der Waals interactions are quantum mechanical interactions. Also there are many other weak arguments, however, note that these problems do not diminish his original arguments.


In general in the above documentation I have collected information about extreme philosophies related to brain and consciousness. Now I would like to take you entirely different world of reality.


First note that a single cell inside our body is conscious. And whole brain could be viewed as global quantum device rather than trying hard to find quantum event occuring at every location and event of the brain, as Hameroff and Penrose groups of scientists are exploring.


We are not interested whether thermal noise destroys quantum signal or how much localised is the concept of quantum brain model, if quantum concept explains the behavior of brain, we formulate its analogue design into an alternative model of nano brain.


Before getting into such quantum brain model, please look at Microtubules is the most precious baby of all brain researchers. An universal model is built fusing the concepts of microtubules, quantum mechanics and consciousness. All thinkings are initially superimposed wave functions, at every deterministic event (say you see anything) all states except one collapse (reduction) due to decoherence, and this is consciousness.



Some existing brain models

1. Multiple worlds hypothesis: Infinite parallel world exists!!! I am too weak to copy this using materials. Hugh Everett, Hinduism is full with this philosophy.

2. World of quantum reality: If quantum states of thinking collapse with an objective, or objective reduction. David Bohm.

3. Stochastic quantum tunneling between bio-molecules: Release of neurotransmitter or signal processing among neurons by triggering is explained with this model. Beck and Eccles

4. Unstable multiple worlds hypothesis: Thinking is time ordered series of reduced multiple worlds into classical states, this is also fundamental of quantum computation. The idea is proposed by Penrose. His argument in emperors new mind was that free will masks AI and AI can not make anything intelligent, see this video challenging penrose?

5. Quantum entangled state and associative memory: Two entangled state separated far away, one changed, other changes automatically. This is used to explain associative memory.

6. Microtubule assisted quantum computing: Coherence between all microtubules beyond single neuron. Penrose and Hameroff.

7. Tubulin production and disintegration as part of cognitive growth: Tubulins are unit of microtubule, when they grow learning of brain is very fast, when they disassemble, men lose memory, intellect consciousness (Alzheimers disease).



Table below shows how exactly we have encoded fundamental features of our brain into the nano brain model.

Please read the paper following the link mentioned in the publication list before reading the table.





Finally some useful information about building the nano brain in reality.


1. Theory and construction of molecular computers and computer using DNA

2. Simulation of molecular clusters on a spherical surface, codes are available here.

3. 3 D nano brain could be built using many materials




Contact: Anirban Bandyopadhyay, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan-305-0037